Arctic Temperatures

Monthly 2-m air temperatures for the Arctic using ERA5 reanalysis (area averaged north of 70°N). Individual years from 1950-2021 are shown by the sequential blue to white lines. 2022 is indicated by the red line. Due to preliminary data from ERA5T (for 2022), this graphic will be updated at a 1-month lag. Updated through August 2022.
Monthly 2-m air temperature anomalies for the Arctic using ERA5 reanalysis (area averaged north of 70°N). Individual years from 1950-2021 are shown by the sequential blue to red lines. 2022 is indicated by the yellow line. Due to preliminary data from ERA5T (for 2022), this graphic will be updated at a 1-month lag. Anomalies are calculated from a 1951-1980 climate baseline. Updated through August 2022.
2022’s monthly 2-m air temperature anomalies for six regions in the Arctic using ERA5 reanalysis. Shading indicates the maximum and minimum temperature anomalies for each month over the 1950-2021 period of record. Due to preliminary data from ERA5T (for 2022), this graphic will be updated at a 1-month lag. Anomalies are calculated from a 1951-1980 climate baseline. Updated through August 2022.
Monthly mean near-surface air temperatures and anomalies for September 2022 in the Arctic. Anomalies are computed relative to a 1981-2010 baseline. Data is from ERA5 reanalysis.
Monthly temperature anomalies from ERA5 reanalysis of 2-m air temperatures in the Arctic using definitions latitudinal definitions. Anomalies are computed relative to a climatological baseline of 1981-2010. Figure is updated through August 2022.
Daily 2 m surface air temperature for the Arctic averaged above 80°N. Individual years from 1958-2021 are shown by the sequential blue/purple to yellow lines. 2022 is indicated by the red line. ERA40 has been applied for the 1958-2002 climatology (white line), while the operational ECMWF is used for the current year. This figure is modified from the Danish Meteorological Institute with more information available at http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/meant80n.uk.php.
Total freezing degree days (FDD) in the Arctic (80°N+) calculated from ERA40 and ECMWF. Data modified from http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/meant80n.uk.php (DMI). FDD are summed over the differences from the freezing point of sea water (-1.8°C).
Total freezing degree days (FDD) anomalies in the Arctic (80°N+) calculated from ERA40 and ECMWF. Data modified from http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/meant80n.uk.php (DMI). FDD are summed over the differences from the freezing point of sea water (-1.8°C). Anomalies are calculated from the ERA40 1958-2002 mean.
Total thawing degree days (TDD) in the Arctic (80°N+) calculated from ERA40 and ECMWF. Data modified from http://ocean.dmi.dk/arctic/meant80n.uk.php (DMI). TDD are summed over the differences above the freezing point of sea water (-1.8°C).
Annual average 2-m temperature anomalies in the Arctic (67°N+) for various reanalysis data sets. Anomalies are calculated from a 1981-2010 baseline. NCEP/NCAR (R1) is available from 1948 to 2021 at https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html. NCEP-DOE (R2) is available from 1979 to 2021 at https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis2.html. CFSR data is available from 1979 to 2021 at https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds093.1/. MERRA-2 is available from 1980 to 2021 at https://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/reanalysis/MERRA-2/. JRA-55 is available from 1958 to 2021 at http://jra.kishou.go.jp/JRA-55/index_en.html. ERA-Interim (ERAi) is available from 1979 to 2018 at https://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim. ERA5 is available from 1979-2021 at https://apps.ecmwf.int/data-catalogues/era5/. Tools including the NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division Web-based Reanalysis Intercomparison Tool: Monthly/Seasonal Time Series (WRIT) have been used for the construction of this plot. Analysis will updated as annual data becomes available. Additional reanalysis data sets will also be added with time.
Annual average 2-m temperature anomalies in the Arctic (67°N+) for various reanalysis data sets. Anomalies are calculated from a 1981-2010 baseline. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) is available from 1880 to 2021 at https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/. Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (Berkeley) is available from 1850 to 2021 at http://berkeleyearth.org/data/. Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CRv2c) is available from 1851 to 2014 at https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.20thC_ReanV2c.pressure.html. NOAA-CIRES-DOE Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CRv3) is available from 1836 to 2015 at https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.20thC_ReanV3.html. ERA-20C is available from 1900 to 2010 at http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/era20c-daily/levtype=sfc/type=an/. JRA-55 is available from 1958 to 2021 at http://jra.kishou.go.jp/JRA-55/index_en.html. ERA-Interim (ERAi) is available from 1979 to 2018 at https://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim. ERA5 is available from 1979-2021 at https://apps.ecmwf.int/data-catalogues/era5/. Tools including the NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division Web-based Reanalysis Intercomparison Tool: Monthly/Seasonal Time Series (WRIT) were used for the construction of this plot. Analysis will be updated as annual data becomes available.
Annual mean surface air temperature anomalies for the Arctic (67-90°N) and for the Global average (90°S-90°N) from 1950 to 2021. Linear trend lines (dashed) are also shown over the 1990 to 2021 period. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMPv4) is available from 1880 to 2021 at https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/. Tools including the NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division Web-based Reanalysis Intercomparison Tool: Monthly/Seasonal Time Series (WRIT) have been used for the construction of this plot. Analysis will updated as annual data becomes available.
Annual mean surface air temperature anomalies for the Arctic (67-90°N; white line), the global average over land areas (90°S-90°N; red line), and the global average over ocean areas (90°S-90°N; blue line) from 1900 to 2021. Linear trend lines (dashed) are also shown over the 1990 to 2021 period. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMPv4) is available from 1880 to 2021 at https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/. Tools including the NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division Web-based Reanalysis Intercomparison Tool: Monthly/Seasonal Time Series (WRIT) have been used for the construction of this plot. Analysis will updated as annual data becomes available.
Annual mean surface air temperature anomalies for the entire globe from 1880 through 2021. A 5-year lowess smoothing line is also shown for this time series. See more on this temperature variability in Labe and Barnes (2022) (https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL098173). GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMPv4) is available from 1880 to 2021 at https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/. Analysis will updated with each year.
Mean 925 hPa air temperature north of 67N (Arctic Circle) over 1949-2022 (October – February). Temperature reanalysis from NCEP/NCAR R1. Subplot highlights surface air temperature anomalies averaged from October – February 2022 using a 1981-2010 baseline. (Updated 6/2/2022)
Changes in annual mean Arctic sea ice extent (NSIDC, Sea Ice Index v3) and air temperature anomalies (Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature; BEST) over the satellite era. BEST is available from 1850 to 2021 at http://berkeleyearth.org/data/. Updated 2/18/2022.
Temperature rankings (1 = warmest, 44 = coldest) from NCEP/NCAR (R1) reanalysis of Arctic 925 hPa air temperatures (70N+). Figure is updated through September 2022.
Zonal-mean cross-section (latitude vs. height) of decadal trends in annual mean temperature for the Northern Hemisphere (0-90°N). Trends are calculated using ERA5 reanalysis over the 1980 to 2021 period.
Monthly temperature anomalies and rankings (1 = warmest, 43 = coldest) from ERA5 reanalysis of 2-m air temperatures in the Arctic (70N+). Anomalies are computed relative to a climatological baseline of 1981-2010. Figure is updated through 2021.
Monthly temperature anomalies and rankings (1 = warmest, 72 = coldest) from ERA5 reanalysis (back extension) of 2-m air temperatures in the Arctic (64N+) from January 1950 to December 2021. Anomalies for each month/year are computed relative to a climatological baseline of 1951-1980. Figure is updated through 2021.
Zonal-mean (45°N to 90°N) cross-section (latitude vs. height) of decadal air temperature trends in boreal winter (December-January-February). Trends are calculated using ERA5 reanalysis over the 1980 to 2022 period. This figure was adapted from Labe et al. [2020, GRL].
Monthly 2-m air temperature anomalies from ERA5 reanalysis (back extension) in the Arctic (67N+) from January 1950 to December 2021 in a Hovmöller-like diagram. Anomalies for each month/year are computed relative to a climatological baseline of 1951-1980. Figure is updated through 2021.

My visualizations:

  • Arctic Sea Ice Extent and Concentration
  • Arctic Sea Ice Volume and Thickness
  • Arctic Temperatures
  • Antarctic Sea Ice Extent and Concentration
  • Climate model projections compared to observations in the Arctic
  • Global Sea Ice Extent and Concentration
  • Polar Climate Change Figures
  • Climate Viz of the Month

  • My related research

    [4] Labe, Z.M. and E.A. Barnes (2022), Comparison of climate model large ensembles with observations in the Arctic using simple neural networks. Earth and Space Science, DOI:10.1029/2022EA002348
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    [Plain Language Summary]

    [3] Peings, Y., Z.M. Labe, and G. Magnusdottir (2021), Are 100 ensemble members enough to capture the remote atmospheric response to +2°C Arctic sea ice loss? Journal of Climate, DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0613.1
    [HTML][BibTeX][Code]
    [Plain Language Summary][CLIVAR Research Highlight]

    [2] Labe, Z.M., Y. Peings, and G. Magnusdottir (2020). Warm Arctic, cold Siberia pattern: role of full Arctic amplification versus sea ice loss alone, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI:10.1029/2020GL088583
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    [Plain Language Summary][CBS News][Science Magazine][The Washington Post]

    [1] Labe, Z.M., Y. Peings, and G. Magnusdottir (2018), Contributions of ice thickness to the atmospheric response from projected Arctic sea ice loss, Geophysical Research Letters, DOI:10.1029/2018GL078158
    [HTML][BibTeX]
    [Plain Language Summary][Arctic Today]


    All of the Python code used to generate these figures are available from my GitHub account. Most scripts use data sets that are generated via ftp retrieval.

    *These figures may be freely distributed (with credit). Information about the data can be found on my references page and methods page.